Diabetes and A1c(HbA1c) What is it, Causes and Symtoms

Discovering what diabetes is and how to take control


There are many people in this world who deal with the disease known as Diabetes. A lot of us don’t really know what diabetes is, causes or symptoms.

Diabetes is a disease that affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin.

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes. When your body turns the food you eat into energy(sugar or glucose), insulin is released to help transport this energy to the cells. If you produce little or no insulin, or are insulin resistant, too much sugar remains in your blood. The blood glucose levels are higher than normal for individuals with diabetes. There are two(2) main types of diabetes; Type 1 and Type 2.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is when your pancreas does not produce insulin. This is also called Juvenile diabetes  , since it is often diagnosed in children or teens.

Type 2 Diabetes 

Type 2 is when the body does not produce enough insulin, or when the cells are unable to use insulin properly, which is called insulin resistance. This type is typically called “adult onset diabetes” since it is diagnosed later in life.


What Causes Diabetes ?

Generally this is unknown . But it is discovered that Genetics play a big role, diet, obesity and lack of exercise play a role in developing diabetes, especially Type 2 diabetes.

How Does Diabetes Affect My Body ?

It is known that over time, high sugar levels also called hyperglycemia can lead to kidney disease, heart disease and blindness. The excess sugar in the bloodstream can damage the tiny blood vessels in your eyes and kidneys, and can harden or narrow your arteries. Diabetes also affects the circulation in your feet.

What Are The Main Symptoms Of Diabetes ?

  • Extreme thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurry vision
  • Extreme hunger
  • Increased fatigue or tiredness
  • Unusual or rapid weight loss

How To find Out If You Have Diabetes 

Generally you should see your physician for a blood sugar level test.

The most common test is a fasting blood glucose test. The normal non diabetic range for blood glucose should be between 70 to 110 mg/dl. If your level is over 140 mg/dl, you may have diabetes.


What Is A1c Levels ?

Basically the technical term is called HbA1c.

Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying pigment that gives blood its red color and also the predominant protein in red blood cells. About 90% of hemoglobin is hemoglobin A. The “A” stands for adult type. Hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c)  is a minor component of hemoglobin to which glucose is bound also referred to as glycosylated or glycosylated hemoglobin

  • An A1c level of less than 5.0% means a 48% lower risk of diabetes and about the same risk of heart disease.
  • An A1c level of 5.5% to 6.0% means an 86% higher risk of diabetes and 23% higher risk of heart disease.

and the numbers go up.

Again A1c stands for glycated hemoglobin. The A1c percentage measures how much sugar is attached to the bloods hemoglobin protein. This shows how well your body has controlled the amount of sugar is in the blood over the past 2-3 months
Part 2 Coming soon! How to lower your? A1c level



Abdominal And Lower Back Routine

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This is a routine that I have learned from my wrestling/ bodybuilding coach. I have used it training clients whether group training or 1-on-1. But first lets learn about the abdominal section and the lower back section and functions of the body.


  • The abdominal muscles support the trunk, allow movement and hold organs in place by regulating internal abdominal pressure.
  • The deep abdominal muscles, together with muscles in the back, make up your ‘core’ muscles and help keep your body stable and balanced, and protects your spine.
  • Causes of abdominal muscle strains include overstretching, overuse or a violent, poorly performed movement of the trunk.
  • Importance of Strengthening the muscles
  • How to perform the movements

Abdominal muscles explained

The four main abdominal muscle groups that combine to completely cover the internal organs include:

  • transversus abdominis – the deepest muscle layer. Its main roles are to stabilise the trunk and maintain internal abdominal pressure
  • rectus abdominis – slung between the ribs and the pubic bone at the front of the pelvis. When contracting, this muscle has the characteristic bumps or bulges that are commonly called ‘the six pack’. The main function of the rectus abdominis is to move the body between the ribcage and the pelvis
  • external oblique muscles – these are on each side of the rectus abdominis. The external oblique muscles allow the trunk to twist, but to the opposite side of whichever external oblique is contracting. For example, the right external oblique contracts to turn the body to the left
  • internal oblique muscles – these flank the rectus abdominis and are located just inside the hipbones. They operate in the opposite way to the external oblique muscles. For example, twisting the trunk to the left requires the left side internal oblique and the right side external oblique to contract together.
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Core muscles

Think of your core as a strong column that links the upper body and lower body together. Having a solid core creates a foundation for all activities. All our movements are powered by the torso – the abdominals and back work together to support the spine when we sit, stand, bend over, pick things up, exercise and more.

Your core muscles are the muscles deep within the abdominals and back, attaching to the spine or pelvis. Some of these muscles include the transversus abdominis, the muscles of the pelvic floor, and the oblique muscles.

Another muscle that is involved in moving the trunk is the multifidus. This is a deep back muscle that runs along the spine. It works together with the transversus abdominis to increase spine stability and protect against back injury or strain during movement or normal posture. Proper ‘core strengthening’ techniques, learned from a skilled allied health professional, can support the combined function of these muscle groups.

Lower Back